Global Renewable Energy - La Gonave/Ethanol


Ethanol Glossary

1) Barrel: A liquid measure equal to 42 American gallons or about 306 pounds; one barrel equals 5.6 cubic feet or .159 cubic meters; for crude oil, one barrel is about .136 metric tons, .134 long tons, and .150 short tons

2) Carbon Dioxide: Carbon dioxide, a normal product of burning fuel, is non-toxic, but contributes to the greenhouse effect (global warming). All petroleum (hydrocarbon) fuels cause increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels because they represent the combustion of fossilized carbon. By contrast, using renewable fuels, such as ethanol, does not increase atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The carbon dioxide formed during combustion is balanced the absorption that occurs during the annual growth of plants used to produce ethanol.

3) Carbon Monoxide: A poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion. Vehicles operating at colder temperatures (in winter months, during engine warm-up or in stop-and-go traffic) produce significant quantities of this deadly gas, which is of particular concern in urban areas. Research shows that transportation sources account for over two-thirds of this pollutant. In the U.S., many cities have mandated the use of "oxygenated" gasoline, such as ethanol blends, to reduce carbon monoxide emissions.

4) Clean Air Act: In 1990, Congress passed amendments to the Clean Air Act, which set minimum standards for air quality in America's cities. Cities with excessive amounts of carbon monoxide and ozone must develop programs to reduce air pollution

5) Cooker: A tank or vessel designed to cook a liquid or extract or digest solids in suspension; the cooker usually contains a source of heat; and is fitted with an agitator.

6) Cooking: The process that breaks down the starch granules in the grain making the starch available for the liquefaction and saccharification steps

7) Co products: The resulting substances and materials that accompany the production of ethanol by fermentation process

8) DDGS: Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the product obtained after the removal of ethyl alcohol by distillation from yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing and drying at least three-fourths of the solids of the resultant whole stillage by methods employed in the grain distilling industry. Blending corn distillers liquid solubles on the wet corn distillers grains before being dried produces DDGS. If not dried, it is sold as wet distillers grains (WDG).

9) Ethanol: Ethanol is an alcohol made from renewable resources such as corn and other cereal grains, food and other beverage wastes and forestry by-products. Ethanol-blended fuel substantially reduces carbon monoxide and volatile organic compound emissions, which are precursors to ozone pollution. A The corn-based substance is added to gasoline blends to meet oxygenate level requirements mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and to raise the octane level.

10) E10 Unleaded: Ordinary unleaded gasoline enhanced with ethanol, which is blended at a rate of ten percent. E-10 Unleaded is approved for use by every major automaker in the world.

11) E85: There are two types of ethanol-blended gasoline in North America: low-level and high-level ethanol blends. High-level ethanol blends are often blended in a proportion of 85% ethanol with 15% gasoline, and are called E85. The small percentage of gasoline enhances engine starting in extremely cold weather. Ethanol a non-corrosive and relatively non-toxic alcohol made from renewable biological feedstocks. It is used directly as fuel (most commonly in Brazil), or as an octane-enhancing gasoline additive (throughout the United States, Canada and Europe). In Canada, several companies throughout Ontario, Quebec and the western provinces offer blends containing 5-10% ethanol in gasoline. Blends of 10% ethanol with gasoline can be used in all gasoline-powered automobiles, without engine or carburetor modification.

12) Global Warming: The escalation of global temperatures caused by the increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the lower atmosphere

13) Greenhouse Effect: A warming of the Earth and its atmosphere as a result of the thermal trapping of incoming solar radiation by CO2, water vapor, methane, nitrogen oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other gases, both natural and man-made

14) Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV): A car or truck that can run on any blend of unleaded gasoline with up to 85% ethanol (E-85). Ford and General Motors offer a number of FFV vehicles. A computer in the fuel system automatically compensates for the varying levels of ethanol in the fuel to assure optimum performance at all times. The State of Nebraska already uses a large number of FFV vehicles in their state fleet.

15) Mash: A mixture, consisting of crushed grains and water, that can be fermented to produce ethyl alcohol

16) MTBE: Methyl tertiary butyl ether-a fuel derived from methanol. MTBE has been found to contaminate groundwater supplies, leading to legislation banning its use in many states.

17) Octane: A flammable liquid hydrocarbon with a chemical formula of C8H18, which is found in petroleum. One of the eighteen isomers of octane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane is used as a standard in assessing the octane rating of fuels.

18) Octane rating: The octane rating of a fuel is indicated on the pump-using numbers such as 87, 90, 91, etc. The higher the number, the greater the octane rating of the gasoline. The octane rating represents the "antiknock" properties of the fuel. The higher the number, the slower the fuel burns-and the less likely your engine will knock. Ethanol typically adds three octane numbers when blended with ordinary gasoline-making it a cost-effective octane-enhancer.

19) Oxygenates: These are compounds, such as alcohols and ethers, which contain oxygen in their molecular structure. Ethanol is an example of an oxygenate. Oxygenates improve combustion efficiency, thereby reducing polluting emissions. Many oxygenates, such as ethanol, also serve as excellent octane enhancers when blended with gasoline.

20) Ozone: A form of oxygen molecule with three oxygen atoms with the chemical formula O3. Ozone occurs as a blue, toxic, pungent-smelling gas at room temperature. The ozone layer is a concentration of ozone molecules six-30 miles above sea level. The layer is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Ultraviolet radiation forms the ozone from oxygen, but can also reduce the ozone back to oxygen. The process absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, shielding life from radiation's harmful effects. Certain air pollutants can drift up into the atmosphere and damage the balance between ozone production and destruction, resulting in a reduction of the concentration of ozone in the layer. Ozone is normally present at ground level in low concentrations. In cities where high levels of air pollutants are present, the action of the sun's ultraviolet light can, through a complex series of reactions, produce a harmful concentration of ozone in the air. The air pollution caused is called photochemical smog.

21) Particulates: Particulates are emissions of soot and particles of partially combusted fuel components. Diesel (compression ignition) engines create a higher percentage of this kind of pollution. Ethanol can dramatically reduce particulate emissions.

22) Volatile Organic Compounds: Air pollution gases contained in automobile emissions regulated by EPA. Volatile organic compounds are carbon-based emissions, released through evaporation and/or combustion, that combine with nitrogen oxide in the presence of sunlight to form ozone